|Author||Wojciech Jaworski (Sosnowiec)|
|Title||ASSOCIATIONS FOR ThE hELP OF ChILDREN IN ThE KINGDOM OF POLAND (1884–1914)
|Keywords||charitable organizations, children, Polish Kingdom, second half of the nine-teenth century.|
In the Polish Kingdom in the years 1884–1914 were legalized at least 38 charities and their 19 branches operating for the beneft of children. They provided material assistance, but also supported education and intellectual development. In the period of public life re-stricted by the state (1864–1894) only one organization was registered; during the regulation period (1894 –1906) – 8, and during the period of liberalization period (1906 –1914) – 29 or-ganizations and 19 branches were established. They were initially created on the initiative of the aristocracy, which continued its tradition. At the end of the nineteenth century mer-chants and manufacturers joined the aristocracy, and after 1906 – petty bourgeoisie. In terms of ethnic and national associations, Poles were founders of most associations (18). A high activity was shown by Jews (16 organizations), and a low activity by Orthodox Christians (3 organizations) and Protestants (1). A large number of associations set up by the Jews was due to the dominant ethnic solidarity among this population, as well as to a high level of migration. Most associations (within the years 1867–1912) were established in Warsaw Guberniya (21) and Piotrków Guberniya (12). This was due to their demographic potential and high socioeconomic changes in the second half the nineteenth century. As many as 16 organizations were established in Warsaw and 9 in Łódź, which were the largest cities of the Polish Kingdom.